Lead Poisoning

Close 1d2 NOW! WARNING: Stop the LEAD Poisoning of Children via Piston Engine Aircraft and Helicopters Using Leaded 100LL Aviation Fuel at 1d2.

Nobody told us about the 1d2 lead! The toxic lead dust from 1d2 has been accumulating in the area since the 1920s, that’s almost 96 years worth of toxic lead accumulation!

100LL leaded gas fuel

100 LL leaded aviation avgas fuel

Lead, one of the most toxic chemicals in our environment, was phased out of automobile gasoline more than 20 years ago.  What many people don’t realize is that the more than 167,000 piston engine airplanes and helicopters that comprise the majority of the U.S. general aviation (GA) fleet pose a very significant health threat through the continued use of 100LL, an aviation fuel containing toxic lead.

100LL leaded aviation avgas fuel is the only fuel available at 1d2.

Aviation fuel 100LL, or avgas, is also known as 100 octane aviation fuel, is a petroleum based fuel designed for reciprocating aircraft engines. This leaded fuel has an octane number of no less than 99.6, adheres to ASTM Specification D 910, and contains 2.12 grams of tetraethyl lead per gallon as an anti-knock agent. Additionally, 100LL leaded aviation fuel contains many other toxic chemical additives. Avgas isn’t really much like automobile gasoline at all. It’s a synthetic blend of chemicals, including xylene, toluene, benzene, and tetraethyl lead. The toxicity hazards of these chemicals are well documented.

In 2010, the EPA issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that fully acknowledged the serious health effects associated with exposure to lead and confirmed that leaded avgas (100LL) fueled aircraft are the largest single source of airborne lead emissions in the US, comprising half of the nation’s total lead emitted.

Lead is highly toxic and causes a variety of adverse health effects; at low exposure levels, it can cause learning disabilities, lower IQ levels, increased blood pressure and nerve damage; at high levels of exposure, it can lead to brain damage and death.

Lead puts children at especially high risk because they absorb larger amounts and are more sensitive to lead-induced toxicity. Lead exposure presents a particular danger to the development of children’s nervous systems. Children absorb 4 to 5 times more lead than adults from the same source.

The United States Government Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states: No safe blood lead level in children has been identified. Lead exposure can affect nearly every system in the body. Because lead exposure often occurs with no obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized.

Lead exposure in childhood can have lifelong consequences. The CDC report Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children: A Renewed Call for Primary Prevention, states that preventing lead exposure is critical, but so are prompt efforts to mitigate lead’s effects. There is no way of reversing damage already done to the brain or nervous system by lead poisoning, which is why pediatricians emphasize prevention.

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory for Aviation and the Environment (LAE) published an article “Unfriendly skies: Piston engine aircraft pose a significant health threat” (August 26, 2016 ) that discusses a study that shows the long-lasting health, economic impacts of lead emissions from U.S. general aviation (GA) flights. The study also showed that lead emissions incurred not only on takeoff and landing, but also during the cruise phase of general aviation (GA) flights, and that those exposed to low levels of lead, especially children, have been shown to suffer neurological and cognitive impairment, including IQ loss.

The technical paper “Costs of IQ Loss from Leaded Aviation Gasoline Emissions” contains a graphic that highlights elevated concentrations of lead emissions including general aviation piston engine aircraft and helicopters very visible in southeast Michigan.

lead levels from piston engine aircraft and helicopters

lead emission levels including piston engine aircraft and helicopters at 1d2

The President’s Task Force on Environmental Health and Safety Risks to Children established a working group focused on federal strategies to protect children from lead exposure and provides a resource page for reducing lead exposure in children. The report contained there (November 2016)  Key Federal Programs to Reduce Childhood Lead urges the EPA to find a replacement for  leaded 100LL  aviation avgas fuel .

Additionally, over thirty organizations that work to protect children from exposure to lead sent a groundbreaking letter as a Plan of Action to Prevent Childhood LEAD Exposure to offer recommendations for key regulatory actions that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal agencies should commit to take as part of the Task Force’s updated Federal lead strategy.

A recent article in Scientific American, Does the Continued Use of Lead in Aviation Fuel Endanger Public Health and the Environment? echoes the same concerns regarding lead exposure from piston driven small airplanes and helicopters.

Another recent article in Popular Science discusses a recent medical study that found that The devastating effects of childhood lead exposure could last a lifetime (html). What makes this study stand out, however, is that children were found to experience long term harm after even modest levels of exposure.

A September 2016 News release from the Friends of the Earth (FOE) titled Lead emissions at 20,000 U.S. airports threaten community health discusses a new report Myths & Realities of Leaded Aviation Fuel, also available in a printer friendly format(pdf), that further reinforces the relationship between children’s blood lead levels and the proximity of their schools and homes to airports such as 1d2 that exclusively use 100LL leaded aviation fuel for all of the piston engine aircraft and helicopters based there. The Aviation Pros web site also mentions the article Myths & Realities of Leaded Aviation Fuel.

The FOE report acknowledges how Michigan Governor Rick Snyder declared a state of emergency in the city of Flint Michigan, the associated problems, and the extreme dangers with lead that most are aware of. FOE is comprised of 75 national member groups of Friends of the Earth International, a global network representing more than two million activists in 75 different countries.

LEAD: We’re all Flint!

Unfortunately, Flint Michigan has already become symbolic of systemic problems recognizing the dangers of toxic lead poisoning as described in way too many articles, e.g. Johns Hopkins University “We are all Flint – 8 Strategies to Confront the Lead Problem” that suggests communities “confront the immediate crisis, but play the long game”, or  “Are We All Flint?“, or “We Are All Flint” by Erin Brockovich. The problems with toxic lead will never disappear, because lead itself never disappears. Based on this article, which appears to be a good indicator, there will be an uphill battle to protect school children from lead that just doesn’t make any sense. The article highlights the ensuing struggle navigating the bureaucracy, special interests, lobbyists, sponsors with campaign contributions, and politics that seem to favor and prize lead (money) over everything else, including our school children. As they always say in the movies “follow the money!”

Most recently (August 30, 2017), the Health Impact Project, a collaboration of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and The Pew Charitable Trusts, produced a report entitled 10 Policies to Prevent and Respond to Childhood Lead Exposure: An assessment of the risks communities face and key federal, state, and local solutions. The 144 page pdf file goes on to say that by “Eliminating lead from airplane fuel would protect more than 226,000 children born in 2018 who live near airports, generate $262 million in future benefits, and remove roughly 450 tons of lead from the environment every year.”

Michigan Moves to Eliminate Child Exposure to Lead

Crain’s Detroit Business reports, March 16, 2017, that Governor Snyder plans to enact nation’s toughest lead standards. Governor Snyder, who has apologized for his administration’s role in the crisis that exposed children to toxic lead, reiterated his refrain that the federal lead rule is “dumb and dangerous.” Mark Edwards, a Virginia Tech University professor who helped expose Flint’s tainted water, said Michigan’s reforms could be a model for other states.

Snyder created a new permanent commission, the Child Lead Exposure Elimination Commission, to focus on eliminating all children’s exposure to lead in the wake of the Flint water crisis. Snyder signed Executive Order 2017-2 establishing the panel. He also named its 15 initial members. Forming the commission was a recommendation of Lt. Gov. Brian Calley’s Child Lead Poisoning Elimination Board (State of Michgan removed Child Lead Poisoning Elimination Board) in November. The Child Lead Elimination Board published the report A Roadmap to Eliminating Child Lead Exposure November 2016 in pdf format.

The new commission to combat lead exposure in children will act in an advisory capacity to the governor and the director of the state Department of Health and Human Services to coordinate programs and policies to eliminate exposure to ALL sources of lead in Michigan.

One of the commission members, Rebecca Meuninck, Deputy Director of the Ecology Center in Ann Arbor, administers a program Ending Child Lead Poisoning and Exposure in Michigan: A Roadmap to Eliminating Child Lead Exposure and has published a report Costs of Lead Exposure and Remediation in Michigan: Update, also available in pdf format.

Lead Exposure Linked To Premature Deaths, Cardiovascular Disease, Even At Low Levels

These are must read articles for anyone concerned about lead poisoning!

Deaths from lead exposure 10 times higher than thought, study suggests – CNN

Lead Exposure Linked To Premature Deaths, Cardiovascular Disease, Even At Low Levels

Study Links Lead Exposure to Heart Disease Deaths – Consumer Reports

Visualizing the Amount of Toxic Lead Dust 1d2 Dumps on the Community

 Everyone that can make a cup a coffee, tea, chai latte, or hot cocoa should be able to visualize the amount of material a teaspoon can hold in their mind:

1 teaspoon of sugar = 4 grams

1 gallon leaded avgas contains 2.12 grams of lead or a little over one half a teaspoon of highly toxic lead dust.

The number of grams of lead dust produced by a GA piston engine airplane or helicopter in one hour can be calculated by taking the number of gallons of leaded 100LL avgas fuel consumed per hour (gph) multiplied by grams of lead per gallon 2.12:

lead grams per hour: pbgh = gph * 2.12.

NOTE: ‘Pb’ is the periodic table symbol (82) for lead

Periodic Table: lead = Pb

The number of teaspoons of lead dust produced by a GA piston engine airplane or helicopter in one hour, or lead teaspoons per hour:

lead teaspoons per hour: pbth = pbgh/4

The number of teaspoons of lead dust produced by a GA piston engine airplane or helicopter in fifteen minutes, or lead teaspoons per quarter hour:

lead teaspoons per 15 minutes = pbtqh = pbth/4.

Again, the simple formula for calculating lead grams per hour is to take the number of leaded 100LL gallons consumed by a piston engine aircraft or helicopter per hour  and multiply by  2.12 grams of lead per gallon.

To get a typical leaded 100LL avgas consumption rate we refer to The Hypothetical Cost Calculation from the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) as a simple example, a 1975 Cessna is projected to consume 8 gallons per hour taking into account climbing and less than optimum-altitude performance. Burning eight gallons of 100LL with 2.12 grams of lead per gallon emits 16.96 grams of lead per hour, which is about 4.24 teaspoons. In just 15 minutes 1.06 teaspoons of lead dust is emitted.

A larger CESSNA T210M uses about 15.2 gallons of leaded 100LL avgas per hour, whereas a piston engine helicopter uses anywhere from 20 to 32 gallons of leaded 100LL avgas per hour, perhaps more, depending on the weight of what’s being carried, weather conditions, etc.

A standard sugar packet sized container would contain approximately 4 grams of lead dust. A packet of lead dust is equal to both a standard cube of lead dust and a teaspoon of lead dust. But it’s easier to visualize these calculations better with a table:

avgas gallons
used per hour
lead grams
per hour
lead teaspoons
per hour
lead teaspoons
per 15 minutes

The truth be told, ‘every single time’, let me say that again, ‘every single time’ you look up and see or hear a piston engine aircraft or helicopter (rotocraft) that flies over your head briefly for 15 minutes, that is, while you can see or hear that aircraft or helicopter for that very brief period of time, it will generate between 1.06 and 4.24 teaspoons of lead dust! Most people can probably now picture the little sugar cube sized lumps or teaspoons of lead dust falling down from aircraft using leaded 100LL avgas!

What is a Dangerous Level of Lead?

The CDC now uses a new reference level of 5 micrograms per deciliter to identify children with blood lead levels that are ‘elevated‘. Before 2012, children were considered to have a blood lead level ‘of concern‘ if a test result indicated 10 or more micrograms per deciliter. Experts now say that no amount of lead in the blood is safe, and that even low levels of exposure can harm cognitive function and have other adverse effects.

The Truth is, There is No Threshold for Lead

Part of the US CDC, the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, publishes an Environmental Health and Medicine Education online-training course Lead Toxicity: What Are the Physiologic Effects of Lead Exposure? (updated April 15, 2017) that states:

“It must be emphasized that there may be no threshold for developmental effects on children.”

  • The practicing health care provider can distinguish overt clinical symptoms and health effects that come with high lead exposure levels on an individual basis.
  • However, lack of overt symptoms does not mean no lead poisoning.
  • Lower levels of lead exposure have been shown to have many subtle health effects.
  • Some researchers have suggested that lead continues to contribute significantly to socio-behavioral problems such as juvenile delinquency and violent crime.
  • It is important to prevent all lead exposures.
  • Blood lead levels once considered safe are now demonstrated to be hazardous.
  • No safe blood lead level (BLL) threshold for children has been identified.
  • Lead hazards should be eliminated before exposure occurs.

There is NO safe level of lead in children’s blood

The Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) web page is also available in a 186 page printer friendly format (pdf) updated (updated April 15, 2017) Lead Toxicity Case Study Guide that contains a self-paced training guide that discusses differences in how lead exposure is measured in children among other important topics.

BTW: lead is so toxic it is no longer made in the US. It is made in only one place in the world. An American owned company, Innospec Ltd., located in Great Britain, is the world’s only producer of tetraethyl lead (TEL). The only countries that use tetraethyl lead (TEL) in quantity are: Afghanistan, Algeria, Burma, Iraq, North Korea, Yemen, and the United States for aviation 100LL leaded avgas.

Ingesting Lead Dust from Piston Engine Aircraft or Helicopters at 1d2

Lead is the most well-studied of the long list of chemicals that are human toxicants or environmental pollutants. Lead emitted into the air is particularly problematic because it can be inhaled or ingested once it settles to the ground.

Once lead is released into the environment, it does not break down and tends to stick to particles in the soil and settle on the ground. If deposited into soil or water, lead can be readily taken into the tissues of plants and animals.

Exposure to lead occurs mainly through inhalation of air and ingestion of lead in food, water, soil, or dust, here are some typical methods of lead exposure:

  • Inhaling lead particulates (dust) in airborne combustion emissions (exhaust fumes) from General Aviation (GA) piston aircraft and helicopter using 100LL leaded aviation avgas fuel
  • Handling, working with, or being exposed to 100LL leaded aviation avgas fuel in the shop, hangar, or airport fuel area
  • Being exposed to airborne dust in lead-contaminated soil
  • Ingesting lead dust through normal hand-to-mouth activity or walking or playing in bare feet
  • Picking up lead dust-covered objects and taking them home
  • Drinking contaminated water – lead dust in groundwater and/or airborne dust entering water supplies
  • Eating contaminated food – lead dust accumulating on locally grown fruits and vegetables

In fact the World Health Organization (WHO) in their report Lead in Drinking-water: Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, note that more than 80% of the daily intake of lead is derived from the ingestion of food, dirt and dust. The full pdf report Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, THIRD EDITION INCORPORATING THE FIRST AND SECOND ADDENDA, Volume 1 Recommendations provides more details, many other reports regarding WHO Water Sanitation and Health are also available.

Aviation Maintenance Magazine published a September 2014 article Reducing Lead Exposure in Aircraft Maintenance Employees (subscription required for full article) that states “In 2012 the owners of an aircraft repair facility [MRO] and flight school contacted the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to request a Health Hazard Evaluation. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and focuses on workplace safety and health. This evaluation was requested after blood tests revealed detectable lead levels in all four of the employees and a high blood lead level in a one-year-old child who was often brought to the workplace . . . This dust deposits on engine parts and external surfaces of the aircraft. Mechanics working on aircraft or in facilities that use leaded avgas are at risk for lead exposure through ingestion and inhalation of lead particles. Ingestion occurs when hands touch contaminated surfaces and are not washed before eating, allowing lead particles to enter the body on food. Inhalation of lead dust can occur if employees breathe air from exhaust plumes or if lead dust that has already settled on the ground is lifted into the air. Exposure to tetraethyl lead can occur if employees inhale avgas fumes or get the fuel on their skin.”

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health hazard evaluation report #20042888  Exposures to LEAD and other metals at an aircraft repair and flight school facility (pdf) found that:

  • Lead dust was found on toys and a baby walker in the work area.
  • Lead was detected in blood samples collected from all facility personnel. The hangar area had the highest surface concentrations of lead; lead was also found on the steering wheel of an employee’s car.
  • Employees should use disposable shoe covers and on-site laundering for work clothes to reduce the potential for take-home lead contamination. Investigators also advised that children not be allowed in work areas. Employees were encouraged to wash their hands thoroughly before eating and drinking, before and after putting on gloves, and before leaving the facility.
  • Do not eat or drink in the hangar area.
  • In homes with a family member exposed to lead, care must be taken to prevent “take home” of lead, that is, lead carried into the home on clothing, skin, hair, and in vehicles. Lead-contaminated surface dust represents a potential source of lead exposure, particularly for young children.
  • NOTE: keep in mind the CDC has since eliminated the term “blood lead level of concern” used in this report and declared there is NO safe level of lead in children’s blood.

The EPA, and many others have found that communities living near airports using leaded 100LL aviation avgas fuel, children attending school near these airports, airplane pilots, student-trainees and passengers are all at risk of exposure to lead emissions from these GA aircraft and helicopters. Sixteen million people live and 3 million children go to school near airports emitting lead from 100LL leaded aviation avgas fuel.

Lead effects on children

The life threatening dangers of lead should be obvious by now, the health and safety subject matter experts of the world are warning everyone that attends school, lives, or works nearby any part of an airport runway, such as 1d2, that use 100LL leaded aviation avgas fuel, are at very high risk of lead exposure!

Many parents and grand parents living around 1d2 are rightly concerned about children and grand children playing outside anywhere near 1d2.

EPA Warning (image credit: The Times via AP/John J. Watkins)

Five Schools in the Canton-Plymouth Are Dangerously Close to Lead Emissions from Piston Engine Aircraft & Helicopters at 1d2

Five schools are within a radius described by the subject matter experts as too close to the toxic lead emissions from piston engine aircraft and helicopters at 1d2. These  schools are identified as:

  • Hulsing Elementary School
  • Plymouth Christian Academy
  • East Middle School
  • Allen Pre-School
  • Smith Elementary

Other schools within a slightly larger radius are also in danger of lead exposure from piston engine aircraft and helicopters:

  • One of the largest HS campuses in the Midwest (over 6500 students), Canton-Plymouth-Salem Educational Park is directly under part of the standard GA “flight pattern” landmarks (Salem VOR) that GA aircraft and helicopters use to navigate and then fly directly over many of the Canton-Plymouth schools to 1d2 every single day. Educational Park is less than 2.5 miles away from 1d2.

Additionally, several schools within a slightly larger but still dangerous radius of 1d2 including:

  • Gallimore Elementary
  • Ibister Elementary School
  • Bird Elementary School
  • West Middle School

 In total the Plymouth-Canton Community School System (PCCS) has: four High Schools, five Middle Schools, fourteen Elementary Schools, and five Community District Programs throughout the community. PCCS is largest single employer in Canton, comprised of 2500 dedicated and capable people.

Additionally Canton has four public charter schools:

  • Canton Charter Academy
  • Achieve Charter Academy
  • South Canton Scholars Charter Academy
  • Plymouth Scholars Charter Academy

Canton also has four Private schools:

  • All Saints Catholic School
  • Previously mentioned Plymouth Christian Academy
  • Plymouth Canton Montessori
  • Crescent Academy International

The total count of school resources for children above does not include day care or pre-school activities!

No matter which way airplanes and helicopters takeoff or land from 1d2 they fly directly over the Canton-Plymouth Schools leaving behind toxic lead dust!

Schools too close to toxic lead emissions from 1d2

1d2 is Surrounded by Schools

1 – Hulsing Elementary School
2 – Plymouth Christian Academy
3 – East Middle School
4 – Allen Pre-School
5 – Smith Elementary School
6 – Ibister Elementary
7 – Pioneer Middle School
8 – Gallimore Elementary School
9 – Miller Elementary School
10 – Plymouth-Canton Educational Park (Canton High School, Plymouth High Schools, Salem High School)
11 – Eriksson Elementary School
12 – Johnson Elementary School

This image shows how dangerously close each of these schools are to toxic lead emissions from 1d2. Use the Zillow Canton Township- Plymouth School map to see more schools in Canton Township, Plymouth, and the other surrounding communities in our ‘densely populated area’. See Population Density page for more info.

Our Diversity is Our Strength


The entire Plymouth-Canton area cherishes and appreciates a total of 36 school resources provided as the crown jewel on behalf of every family in the community. These strong school values are a major basis for everyone living and working in the area.

Many in the community moved to the Canton-Plymouth area for the excellent PCCS School System, the great diversity of the community, and healthy mindset as shown in the latest Discover Magazine!


Move 1d2 Activities to Appropriate Facilities

 Given the widespread public understanding of the grave health effects of lead exposure, it is appalling that we allow this continuous toxic lead pollution stream to harm our communities, especially our school children. We cannot wait any longer for endangerment findings or legislation that has been lingering for over 20 years.

We demand that the State of Michigan take immediate action and provide the fastest and most expedient action to protect our children NOW by closing 1d2 and moving several dozen hangar renters and a couple minor business concerns and their aircraft and helicopters to more appropriate facilities including YIP Willow RunARB Ann Arbor, and  Y47 New Hudson airports, removing the toxic lead exposure to the Plymouth-Canton Community School System, surrounding schools, and communities!

Four main issues we as a community have to realize is that 1) Minimal job loss would occur, the few, could be transferred to these more appropriate runway facilities. Certainly, the flight training activities already have existing headquarters in Ann Arbor, Jackson, and/or elsewhere, as all of the training activities come in from other airports.

We also have to realize that 2) there is no mission critical business or activity that occurs at 1d2, and there is no unique activity that cannot be accommodated at these other very close facilities in a healthier, more efficient, less expensive manner to the taxpayer.

And that 3) 1d2 is only a very minor and  insignificant ‘hobby/recreationa/sport’ landing strip in the grand scheme of things, this is not and has never been considered infrastructure to Wayne County or important to anyone outside of the several dozen hangar renters, a couple minor business concerns taking advantage of State and Federal handouts, and a couple MDOT employees.

Again, 4) 1D2 is a complete duplicity of features at YIP Willow Run, ARB Ann Arbor, and  Y47 New Hudson airports! How many airports do we need for hobby/sport/recreational use that are this close together?

There are 22 airports within 50 miles of 1d2 that receive 51.4% of the total MDOT/FAA NPIAS 2017-2021 budget for the entire State of Michigan. This amounts to $365,600,480.00 out of $714,881,838.00. With rapidly decreasing personal pilot/aircraft numbers and shrinking demographics, the surrounding 22 airports can easily absorb any and all activities at 1d2.

Here is a table of feature to compare that show the superior capabilities at these other close, more appropriate airports:

New Hudson
Ann Arbor
Willow Run
New Hudson
Ann Arbor
Willow Run
Schools in radius
0.5 – 1 mile
Schools in radius
3 miles
Schools in radius
6 miles
Noise sensitive
Safety Issue
SHORT runway
(Road encroachment)
Lyon TwspPittsfield TwspVan Buren
density/sq mi
Number of runways1123
Runway Length ft2303x75
from 1D2
excess capacity
excess capacity
excess capacity
excess capacity
Size of airport in acres63838372600
Area in
square miles
Flight Schools/
3 / 32 / 2Many / ManyMany / Many
08:00 – 20:00
83 / 1066 / 1188 / 7217 / 7
Bus JetsNYYY
Touch and Go OpsNYYY
MDOT officials
living close by

NOTE: 1 square mile = 640 acres

This is NOT a “Not in My Backyard” Thing

Some might say that this is case of “Not in My Backyard”, it is NOT! The alternate runway locations do not have any schools in the close immediate vicinity let alone five schools in serious proximity to 1d2 like Canton Township does. There are also nine other schools that are in imminent danger from toxic lead exposure, making the total of 28 PCCS school facilities, 8 other private or charter schools, for a grand total 0f 36 schools within close proximity to 1d2.

After all Canton is that not that large of an area, only thirty six square miles to have 36 school resources located within just seconds of any aircraft or helicopter to fly over. Small aircraft and helicopters use a navigational aid known as the Salem VOR that uses the High School campus as a visual navigational marker.  Using this visual navigational marker all small aircraft and helicopters fly directly over the Plymouth-Canton Educational Park campus by default on their way to 1d2 leaving behind a trail of toxic lead dust over many other schools along the way.

It is important to note the approximate size of Willow Run YIP Airport. YIP is 11.1% of the size of  entire Canton Township area!

New Canton & Plymouth Community Taglines

A ‘tagline’ is defined as a catchphrase or slogan, especially as used in advertising.

As shown in the simple formula above a lot of lead dust is generated by piston engine aircraft and helicopters, so the community can with all honesty use the 1d2 catchphrase: “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”™ as the new community ‘tagline’.

Here are a few examples of the new tagline that we could use to dramatically highlight the problem with lead dust emitted from piston engine aircraft and helicopters at 1d2:

  • Move to Canton, great for families, seniors, and “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  • PCCS – Plymouth-Canton School System, one of the best School Systems in the State and “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  • Come live, shop, or dine in quaint old Plymouth and “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  • Come to the 1d2 Canton-Plymouth Mettetal Father’s Day Pancake Breakfast and “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  • Come watch take offs and landings at 1d2 and “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  • Vote in Canton at Precinct 30 at 1d2 and “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!” Canton Township has updated the precinct voting location, contact for Canton Township Clerk Michael A. Siegrist for new location details.
  • Come shop at IKEA 41640 Ford Rd, Canton Township, MI 48187 and “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust.”
  • Come visit Canton Firefighters (CFD), Station #2, 41500 Warren Road (between Haggerty and Lilley Roads), Canton, MI 48187, just down the street, ~710 meters, ~920 steps from 1d2 Mettetal lead poisoning and “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!” I’m not sure that anyone would want to work under those health conditions!
  • Come get your State of Michigan (SoS) license plates and registration at the Michigan Secretary of State, West Wayne County Plus location at 8565 N Lilley Rd, Canton, MI 48187 (street|satellite), and “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!” BTW: sadly, I don’t think that anyone has told these State of Michigan employees that they have been exposed to lead poisoning for the last decade as they are directly across Lilley Road less than 300m from Canton Plymouth Mettetal 1d2 100LL leaded aviation fuel pump location.
  • Visit Three Brothers restaurant at  8825 General Drive, Plymouth, Michigan (located on Joy Road between Haggerty and Lilley), a mere 150 meters = 190 steps from Canton Plymouth Mettetal airstrip to “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  • Come to LifeChurch Canton located at 6900 North Haggerty Road
    Canton, MI 48187 and 7001 North Taggerty Road Canton, MI 48187 (only 870 meters = 1135 steps) to “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  • Go to the Skatin’ Station 8611 Ronda Dr, Canton, MI 48187, 213.3 meters or 280 steps
    away to “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  • Welcome to Canton Christian Fellowship Church at 8775 Ronda Dr, Canton, MI 48187, 256 meters or 336 steps away and “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  •  Feel sorry for those at Crystal Creek Assisted Living and Memory Care, 8121 N Lilley Rd, Canton, MI 48187, as they “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  • Feel sorry for those at  Heartland Health Care Center-Canton, 7025 N. Lilley Road in Canton, MI 48187, a post-hospital skilled nursing care facility, as they “get sprinkled with 1d2 lead dust!”
  • Absopure Water Co (Corporate| Canton) 7900 Haggerty Rd, Canton, MI 48187, +1-800-499-9938, is Less than 830 meters from Lead Poisoning from Canton Plymouth Mettetal 1d2 airstrip as shown on google Satellite map. Their second location, Absopure Fresh Brew Coffee Services (home), 8845 General Dr, Plymouth, MI 48170, +1-616-455-5700, is less than 230 meters Lead Poisoning from Canton Plymouth Mettetal 1d2 airstrip as shown on google Satellite map.

Yazaki Corporation North American Headquarters in Canton Township is 1000m from Toxic Lead Poisoning from Canton Plymouth Mettetal 1d2 Airstrip

The Yakzaki Corporation is the largest single corporate employer in Canton Township, Michigan with over 1,000 employees. However, the largest single employer is still the Plymouth-Canton Community Schools (PCCS) with over 2,500 employees [Wikipedia].

Yazaki Kako Corporation  – 未来を創造する組立素材「イレクター」|矢崎化工株式会社 or Yazaki Corporation (矢崎総業株式会社 Yazaki Sōgyō Kabushiki Kaisha)  is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan and is comprised of 67 companies, 316 sites, with over 20,000 employees worldwide. The Yazaki North American Headquarters is located in Canton Township, Michigan.

Additionally, the Yazaki Corporation has the Yazaki Testing Laboratory, and a Yazaki North American Warehouse also located in Canton Township, Michigan, and is a highly respected global Corporation. The three Canton Michigan Yazaki Corporation locations are as follows:

Yazaki North America | Power. Data. Display. (YNA), [Bloomberg][Facebook][Hoovers][Instagram][LinkedIn]Shimizu][Twitter][wikipedia]
Corporate Headquarters
6801 N Haggerty Rd, Canton, MI U.S.A. 48187

Yazaki Testing Laboratory (YTL)
6800 N Haggerty Rd, Canton, MI U.S.A 48187

Yazaki North America Warehouse
6700 N Haggerty Rd, Canton, MI U.S.A 48187

NOTE: the Yazaki North American Headquarters Main Campus, Testing Laboratory, and North American Warehouse are all located 1000m from the toxic Canton Plymouth Mettetal 1d2 airstrip (street|satellite) lead poisoning.


All levels of U.S.A government, including local, county, state, including MDOT Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and Federal authorities, have failed to warn or protect the Health, Safety, and Welfare of babies, young children, students, families, nursing & pregnant mothers, retired & elderly at the many local assisted care living & rehabilitation facilities from Lead Poisoning by aircraft & helicopters using 100LL Leaded Aviation Fuel at Canton Plymouth Mettetal 1d2 airstrip [Wikipedia][SoM].

These same authorities have knowingly remained silent (acquiesce) and have not notified anyone about lead poisoning from Canton Plymouth Mettetal 1d2 airstrip including many companies such as the Yazaki Corporation further adding to the adding to the “Community Health Malpractice & Negligence.”  Lead Poisoning from leaded 100LL aviation fuel is common knowledge and is well known in the aviation industry for over a decade!

The Rivian Corporation in Plymouth Township, Michigan

Rivian is an American automotive technology company with research and development operations in Plymouth Township, Michigan; San Jose, California; and Irvine, California. Rivian also has a factory in Normal, Illinois, and an engineering facility in the United Kingdom.

Rivian is creating world class Trucks R1T and R1S SUV EVs,  and is located at 13250 Haggerty Rd, Plymouth, MI 48170 (street|satellite) which was previously the old Burroughs plant, 41100 Plymouth Rd, Plymouth, MI 48170, that has a total of ~800,000 sq ft. [Bloomberg] [Car and Driver] [Edmunds] [Facebook] [Forbes] [Glassdoor] [Instagram] [LinkedIn] [Twitter] [Vimeo] [Wikipedia], and has about 350 employees in Plymouth.

See Negative Community Impact for old Burroughs property details. MDOT must realize they risk scaring away world class corporations by keeping Canton Plymouth mettetal 1d2 airstrip open close to corporations like Rivian. The Rivian corporation Head Quarters is roughly 1.6 miles away, well within the three mile radius of dangerous lead poisoning from Canton Plymouth Mettetal 1d2 airstrip that will chase away employees and any other companies!

Here is a brief timeline history of the Rivian presence in South East Michigan (Plymouth Township, Michigan):

  • 2017 – EV startup Rivian buys old Mitsubishi plant in Normal, Illinois (Autoblog)
  • 2018 – Inside Rivian’s plan to challenge Detroit and electrify the American truck & SUV (Teslarati)
  • 2018 – Plymouth-based auto company Rivian to unveil 2 electric vehicles later this month (ClickOnDetroit)
  • 2018 – LA Auto Show: Rivian unveiling electric truck (HomeTownLife)
  • 2018 – An inside look at Rivian’s EV ambitions from AI batteries to electric jet skis (TechCrunch)
  • 2018 – Rivian’s battery pack technology is more advanced than we thought and that’s awesome – (Cnet Roadshow)
  • 2018 – Michigan-based startup Rivian unveils a pricey electric pickup (CNN)
  • 2018 – Rivian Wants to Do for Pickups What Tesla Did for Cars (WIRED)
  • 2018 – Rivian R1T First Look: Trucks go electric (YouTube) 4:24.
  • 2019 – This Lone Rivian R1T Electric Truck Video Shows All (InsideEVs)
  • 2019 – FIRST EVER Electric Pickup Truck – 2021 RIVIAN R1T (YouTube)
  • 2019 – Designed in Detroit, Rivian pickup, SUV plug in for adventure (metromode)
  • 2019 – The North American International Auto Show, One Detroit (PBS) 26:46.
  • 2019 – Rivian | One Detroit Clip (YouTube) 3:54.
  • 2019 – WATCH: Electric Vehicle Maker Rivian Profiled In Our Detroit Public Television Debut (DailyDetroit)
  • 2019 – Electric Rivian R1S, R1T might be attractive to Amazon, GM (HomeTownLife)
  • 2019 – Amazon to lead $700M investment in electric vehicle startup Rivian (Detroit Free Press)
  • 2019 – GM, Amazon eye electric-truck maker Rivian (Detroit News)
  • 2019 – Plymouth Township-based Rivian lands $700 million investment commitment led by Amazon (Crains Detroit)
  • 2019 – GM, Amazon eye Plymouth-based electric truck maker Rivian (Crains Detroit)
  • 2019 – Electric pickup maker Rivian gets $700M from Amazon, others (Detroit News)
  • 2019 – Amazon Leads $700 Million Raised by Rivian, Electric Truck Maker (Bloomberg)
  • 2019 – Amazon Leads Investment Round Of $700 Million In Electric Vehicle Startup Rivian (Forbes)
  • 2019 – Amazon Invests in Rivian, a Tesla Rival in Electric Vehicles (The New York Times)
  • 2019 – Rivian Founder Now Has Amazon Backing His Electric Vehicles (Bloomberg)
  • 2019 – Rivian announces $700 million investment round led by Amazon (CNBC)
  • 2019 – Amazon leads $700 million investment into electric pickup truck startup Rivian (VentureBeat)

Let’s hope that MDOT closes Canton Plymouth Mettetal 1d2 airstrip and this has a happy ending for the residents of Michigan?

Alternate Fuels Some Day in the Future, Maybe

 Certainly, some will say that unleaded aviation fuels are on the way, but many industry experts are certainly wary of that claim. Additionally, tetraethyl lead might well one day be replaced with a more complex blend of other exotic chemicals, but it will be hard to really tell as the fuel blend recipes are drastically different from traditional leaded 100LL aviation avgas fuel, are very proprietary, and still changing all over the chemical map.

Plus, redesigning infrastructure for avgas fuel and or replacements is very complicated, time consuming, and expensive. Without testing and a successful, safe history to build on, it may be simply wishful thinking replacing one toxic chemical for a set of other toxic chemicals. This is not a time to perform lead or exotic chemical exposure experiments on our Canton-Plymouth School children as if they were expendable guinea-pigs or laboratory rats.

After all we’re only talking about several dozen 1d2 hangar renters and their personal hobby, sport, or recreational pursuit, and a couple of minor business concerns. This is not a life or death ordeal to move 1d2 personal hobby activity to more appropriate facilities for the sake of the school children and community.

Even the aviation experts agree that it is not a simple matter at all for alternate fuels. See the article Running on Empty: Can GA find an alternative to leaded avgas? that states: “The candidate replacement fuels we are testing are quite a bit different from traditional leaded aviation gasoline,” he says. “We can’t discuss what the fuel blends are because they are proprietary, but we’re looking at much higher contents of chemicals, somewhere in the range of 50 percent or higher.” That obviously begs the question of whether the cure to our leaded 100LL aviation fuel woes will be worse than the disease.

 We can’t wait any for Someone else to Decide Our Children’s Fate Any Longer! The State of Michigan Must Protect our Children Now!

 Move several dozen hangar renters and minor business concerns to YIP Willow RunARB Ann Arbor, and  Y47 New Hudson Oakland Southwest airports NOW! The State of Michigan can do this immediately to protect the Health, Safety, and Welfare of the Children of Canton, Plymouth, and surrounding communities from lead poisoning. We CANNOT wait for anyone to play catch up, we need to protect our children NOW from further damage due to lead exposure from piston engine aircraft and helicopters at 1d2.


As our school children are being poisoned with lead while they are in their schools, MDOT has a five year budget for 1d2 that amounts to $2.19 million that includes a new garage to park (SRE) – “Snow Removal Equipment” and lawnmower(s). Ok so what’s wrong with that picture? Do we need a need a new garage for the snow plow and lawn mower or do we protect our children and community from lead? Let’s use that $2.19 million dollars and close 1d2 down for good and start lead remediation immediately so the community can grow healthy once again and use the 62 acres of 1d2 properly for the benefit of the entire community! A $2.19 million dollar 1d2 budget via a MICHIGAN STATE BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM – FIVE-YEAR AIRPORT CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM (CIP) FY-2016 to FY-2021, that includes a half a million dollars in local funds is an outrageous slap in the taxpayers face!

Schools Too Close to Toxic Lead from 1d2


Close 1d2 Canton-Plymouth Mettetal NOW Due to Toxic Lead emissions!

Don’t Poison Our Kids with LEAD!

The United States Center for Disease Control (CDC) reiterates a key message:

. . . because no safe blood level has been identified for young children, all sources of lead exposure for children should be controlled or eliminated. Feb 18, 2016

All of the 100LL leaded aviation fuel facts and data acknowledge the fact that the State of Michigan and the federal government’s longstanding lead exposure criteria and knowledge thereof, along with the continued acquiescence has NOT and is NOT protective of the public health, welfare and safety, especially for our children!

Again, we all need to close 1d2 Canton-Plymouth Mettetal NOW Due to Toxic Lead emissions!

New – Updates, References, etc.

10 Policies to Prevent and Respond to Childhood Lead Exposure: An assessment of the risks communities face and key federal, state, and local solutions, August 30, 2017
Eliminating lead from airplane fuel would protect more than 226,000 children born in 2018 who live near airports, generate $262 million in future benefits, and remove roughly 450 tons of lead from the environment every year. A printable 144 page pdf is available.

Bills seek to ban sale of 100LL [leaded aviation fuel] in Oregon — General Aviation News https://generalaviationnews.com/2017/02/21/bills-seek-to-ban-sale-of-100ll-in-oregon/

NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search – 20042888 – Health hazard evaluation report: exposures to lead and other metals at an aircraft repair and flight school facility.

1910.1025 – Lead. | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

1926.62 – Lead | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

TETRAETHYL LEAD – National Library of Medicine HSDB Database
[permalink above is currently broken] [broken toxnet permalink]
Search for Tetraethyl Lead [toxnet manual search until permalink is fixed]

The hidden toxic threat in America’s backyards – ThinkProgress
The hidden toxic threat in America’s backyards. As the issue recedes from public consciousness, lead exposure is still harming children in complex ways.
A detailed five part series:
Part 1 – A Toxic Legacy: Urban children are playing in toxic dirt
Decades of build-up have left invisible mountains of lead in America’s urban centers.
Part 2 – Playing with Poison: Lead-contaminated soil exposes children to lifelong struggles
One boy’s journey from trouble to triumph at school.
Part 3 – The Crime of lead Contamination: The lead-to-prison pipeline
Experts say childhood lead exposure is a factor in crime and should be considered when addressing juvenile and criminal delinquency
Part 4 – The Lead Crisis: Tackling an invisible, dangerous neurotoxin
Community awareness and action are key to enacting solutions
Part 5 – Lead culprits: Profiting from Poison
Even the ancient Romans knew lead was a deadly toxin. How did it end up in America’s gas tanks and backyards?

National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human Services
Lead and Lead Compounds, CAS No. 7439-92-1 (Lead)
Carcinogenicity:Lead and lead compounds are reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens

National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human Services
Report on Carcinogens Background Document for: Lead and Lead Compounds

NTP-National Toxicology Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
NTP Monograph: Health Effects of Low-Level Lead

NTP-National Toxicology Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

America’s Children and the Environment (ACE) | Third Edition
ACE: Biomonitoring – Lead | America’s Children and the Environment (ACE) | US EPA

America’s Children and the Environment | Third Edition
Biomonitoring: Lead – Report Contents | America’s Children and the Environment (ACE) | US EPA

America’s Children and the Environment | Third Edition
Lead | Biomonitoring

Kids Exposed to Mercury or Lead More Likely to Experience Attention Deficit – Scientific American

Lead Exposure Causes ADHD in Children, New Study Finds

MSU researchers link low lead exposure to ADHD | MSUToday | Michigan State University

World Health Organization (WHO) Childhood Lead Poisoning

Lead poisoning – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic

Lead Poisoning: The Ignored Scandal | by Helen Epstein | The New York Review of Books

US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health
The National Center for Biotechnology Information
Human Biomonitoring of Lead Exposure. – PubMed – NCBI

Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations – NCBI

Search within “Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations”, lead poisoning – Books – NCBI

445 references (books) related to lead poisoning: US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, The National Center for Biotechnology Information
lead poisoning – Books – NCBI

Lead Exposure & Breastfeeding | Michigan Breastfeeding Network
Maternal feeding decisions in the face of lead exposure do require careful consideration on a case-by-case basis. Health care providers should have access to lead levels of mother and baby, when applicable, and use them to carefully weigh the risks and exposure to the significant risk of not breastfeeding.

BREASTFEEDING & LEAD EXPOSURE, Issue Statement and Recommendations


Snyder appoints Heise to park authority
Yes! Turn 1d2 into a Huron-Clinton Metropark for the whole community to enjoy!

Joint recreation plan eyed for Plymouth city, township

Blood tests significantly underestimated lead levels, FDA and CDC warn – The Washington Post

Safety Communications > FDA Warns Against Using Magellan Diagnostics LeadCare Testing Systems with Blood Obtained from a Vein: FDA Safety Communication

Lead exposure alters the trajectory of children’s lives decades later, study finds – The Washington Post

FDA Warns of False Results With Common Lead Test | RAPS

Press Announcements > FDA warns Americans about risk of inaccurate results from certain lead tests

Adult Lead Poisoning – Frequently Asked Questions

Can lead affect an unborn baby?
Yes. Lead can be found in the blood and bones of pregnant women who have been exposed to lead hazards. Lead can then cross the placental barrier and affect the fetus. Lead can also be passed to a newborn infant through breast feeding.

A man’s exposure to lead can affect his ability to have healthy children. Lead is one of the few things which can affect pregnancy by causing changes in the fathers’s sperm. Damaged sperm may affect the baby’s growth and cause possible health problems in the baby. Immediate effects can include miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery and low birth weight.

What is considered a safe level of lead in my blood?
Lead is not a natural part of the environment and has no nutritional value. There is no safe level of lead in a person’s blood.

Lead Exposure Has Terrifying Effects on Grown-Ups, Too

Lead – American Cancer Society

Lead emissions from planes may be costing billions in lost earnings – Journalist’s Resource

Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report, Jul 2013) | Risk Assessment Portal | US EPA
An EPA study, the Integrated Science Assessment for Lead, reviews the vast research on airborne lead exposure and the history of American efforts to remove the element entirely from the environment.

Lead neurotoxicity in children: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates | Brain | Oxford Academic
Brain (2003) 126 (1): 5-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awg014
Oxford University Press, Brain: A Journal of Neurology
pdf available

Economic gains resulting from the reduction in children’s exposure to lead in the United States.

CDC – Lead – New Blood Lead Level Information https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/acclpp/blood_lead_levels.htm
What Do Parents Need to Know to Protect Their Children?

Timeline of leaded aviation fuel

How The Thousands Of Cities With Dangerous Lead Levels Can Fix The Problem https://www.fastcodesign.com/3066769/how-the-thousands-of-cities-with-dangerous-lead-levels-can-fix-the-problem

CDC – Lead – Tips – Sources of Lead – Water
“CDC reiterates a key message: because no safe blood level has been identified for young children, all sources of lead exposure for children should be controlled or eliminated.” Feb 18, 2016

Lead Poisoning

Lead Poisoning Prevention – Lead Safety

Early On | Lead Resources

Coping with Your Child’s Diagnosis of Lead Poisoning Michigan Department of Health and Human Services

Lead Poisoning Prevention

WHO | Lead poisoning and health

WHO | Lead

CDC – Lead: Health Problems Caused by Lead – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic

Childhood lead poisoning – WHO

Learn about Lead | Lead | US EPA

Lead Poisoning: Flint Is Part of a Global Health Problem | Time.com


U.S. Cities Move to Curb Lead Poisoning – Scientific American

UK company sells lead to last place on Earth where leaded petrol is legal [and U.S.]

Made in Britain: The toxic tetraethyl lead used in fuel sold to world’s poorest

British company ‘selling toxic lead fuel to poor countries’ – Telegraph

Innospec Inc. (“Innospec”) is a manufacturer and distributor of fuel additives and other specialty chemicals, violated the anti-bribery, books and records and internal controls provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) when it routinely paid bribes in order to sell Tetra Ethyl Lead (“TEL”), a fuel additive, which boosts the octane value of gasoline, to government owned refineries and oil companies.

References and Further Reading

Gov. Rick Snyder creates permanent commission to focus on eliminating child lead exposure

Snyder plans to enact nation’s toughest lead standards – Crain’s Detroit Business

Michigan Child Lead Poisoning Elimination Board

Child Lead Poisoning Elimination Board: A Roadmap to Eliminating Child Lead Exposure November 2016

Two MSU faculty appointed to new state commission focused on eliminating child lead exposure | MSUToday | Michigan State University
Rebecca Meuninck, Dr. Mona Hanna-Attisha

Ending Child Lead Poisoning and Exposure in Michigan | Ecology Center

Just Released: Updated Lead Report | Ecology Center

Costs of Lead Exposure and Remediation in Michigan: Update
October, 2016, A report prepared by the Ecology Center and the Michigan Network for Children’s Environmental Health

New bill would help fight Michigan’s battle with child lead poisoning | The State News

World Health Organization – Lead in Drinking-water: Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality

WHO | Water sanitation and health

Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality
Volume 1 Recommendations

CDC – Lead – Home Page

Lead | US EPA

EPA History: Lead | EPA History | US EPA

Lead Hotline – The National Lead Information Center | Lead | US EPA

Lead (Pb) Toxicity: What Are the Physiologic Effects of Lead Exposure? | ATSDR – Environmental Medicine & Environmental Health Education – CSEM

Environmental Health Perspectives – A Geospatial Analysis of the Effects of Aviation Gasoline on Childhood Blood Lead Levels

Aviation fuel settlement may help phase out lingering source of U.S. lead pollution | Science | AAAS

Does the Continued Use of Lead in Aviation Fuel Endanger Public Health and the Environment? – Scientific American

EHP – Sunset for Leaded Aviation Gasoline?

Regulations for Lead Emissions from Aircraft | Regulations for Emissions from Vehicles and Engines | US EPA

WHO | Lead poisoning and health

Lead (Pb) Toxicity: What Are the Physiologic Effects of Lead Exposure? | ATSDR – Environmental Medicine & Environmental Health Education – CSEM
. . . good mention of no lead threshold and no visible symptoms

News releases – Lead emissions at 20,000 U.S. airports threaten community health

Aviation emissions – Myths & Realities of Leaded Aviation Fuel

Earthjustice: Environmental Law: Because the Earth Needs a Good Lawyer

We’re All Flint: State of Oregon and US EPA A-OK with Airborne Pb Poisoning of Oregonians – Oregon Public Empowerment News (OregonPEN)

10 Things They Won’t Tell You About the Flint Water Tragedy. But I Will. | MICHAEL MOORE

Chemical Sampling Information | Lead, Inorganic (as Pb) | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Lead. – 1910.1025 | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Safety and Health Topics | LEAD | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

American Lung Association – Energy Policy Development:
Transportation Background Document

Aviation-Related Injury Morbidity and Mortality:
Data from U.S. Health Information Systems

Lead poisoning toll revised to 1 in 38 young kids

For Greener Skies: Reducing Environmental Impacts of Aviation
The National Academies Press – Sciences, Engineering,  Medicine
[free online report, or free registration for pdf]

Quantifying Aircraft Lead Emissions at Airports
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Transportation Research Board
[free online report, or free registration for pdf]

Guidebook for Assessing Airport Lead Impacts
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Transportation Research Board
[free online report, or free registration for pdf]

Best Practices Guidebook for Preparing Lead Emission Inventories from Piston-Powered Aircraft with the Emission Inventory Analysis Tool
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Transportation Research Board
[free online report, or free registration for pdf]

The Secret History of Lead | The Nation

Aviation SMEs

Unfriendly skies: Piston engine aircraft pose a significant health threat | MIT News

Getting the Lead Out: The Future of Avgas | BCA content from Aviation Week

Upper Limit Aviation | Why General Aviation Needs To Stop Using Leaded Avgas

Lead Emissions at 20,000 U.S. Airports Threaten Community Health

Toxic Hazards in Aviation

General Aviation’s Avgas Problem: Low Lead to No Lead?

Running on Empty | Flying Magazine

General Articles

Opponents of Leaded Aviation Fuel Could Be In For Long Wait . News | OPB

Leaded Aviation Fuel Exposes Neighborhoods Near Airport To Risk, While FAA Says Alternative Could Still Be Years Away

British company ‘selling toxic lead fuel to poor countries’ – Telegraph
A British (American owned) company convicted of bribing foreign officials is continuing to sell poisonous lead fuel additive to unstable countries.

Aviation last big source of toxic lead in U.S. – Chicago Tribune

The forgotten source of lead that’s still spewing into our air

Exclusive: CDC considers lowering threshold level for lead exposure | Reuters

Blood Lead Levels in Children: What Parents Need to Know – HealthyChildren.org

U.S. cities move to curb lead poisoning following Reuters report | Reuters

Could Early Lead Exposure Contribute to Crime and Delinquency? – In Public Safety

General Reference

Lead – Wikipedia

Tetraethyllead – Wikipedia

Lead poisoning – Wikipedia